The hamstring ligaments
Knee damage is one of the most customstream types of sports injuries.
The knee joint is composed of three bones, the patella (kneecap), the femur and the tibia. To the patella and the edges of the femur and tibia is attached to the articular capsule. Depending on the location relative to the capsule, ligaments of the knee joint can be divided into vakabalea and intracapsular. Inside the capsule of the knee joint are anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Between the tibia and the femur are two meniscus (interarticular cartilage). The menisci are connected by a transverse ligament of the knee. In addition, the menisci are strengthened front and rear meniskobedrennaya ligament.
The knee joint
On the lateral surfaces of the joint is located lateral ligament (tibial and fibular collateral ligament). The front of the articular capsule strengthened by ligaments, which are a direct continuation of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris. The tendon of this muscle approaches the patella, and covers it from all sides. The tendon continues down and forms the following ligaments: lateral and medial supporting ligament of the patella, patellar. Patellar tendon support play an important role in the movement of the knee joint holding the patella in the desired position.
Behind the capsule of the knee joint is reinforced by the oblique popliteal ligament, which is part of the bundles of the tendon of the semimembranosus muscle bundles. In addition to this ligament, posterior joint capsule reinforced by the arcuate popliteal ligament.
Damage to the popliteal ligaments often occur as a result of sports injuries. The most common ligament injury is a sprain. This injury occurs because the ligament is subjected to load exceeding its strength. Stretching can occur as a result of sudden displacements over the normal range of motion of the joint.
Tension can also cause any physical activity that causes tension in the knee joint. So, the hamstring ligaments may provoke unusual for a knee joint movement. Such movement may occur during sports with sudden stops or change of direction running, a quick flexion at the knee, lifting heavy weight, jumping, landing, and any activities that cause sudden rapid flexion of the knee. A partial tear of a knee ligament is usually found when playing hockey, football, skiing, basketball, rarely powerlifting. The sprain can also be caused by falling on knee collision while running. In addition, a partial tear of a knee ligament may occur due to a blow to the knee.
Readers ‘ questions Hello. At age 18 (7 years ago) I hurt my knee (bad fall from a height), there is formed a liquid, but the surgery I did not agree, it healed itself 18 October 2013, 17:25 Hello. At age 18 (7 years ago) I hurt my knee (bad fall from a height), there is formed a liquid, but the surgery I didn’t agree, it’s healing itself. Later MRI done (in the report reads: the MRI signs of rupture of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, contusion of the specified localization of the femur, b.the tibia bone, and a head M. the tibia, not pronounced synovitis), the results of which the doctor said everything is fine (the complaints of pain when walking, when bending-unbending no, only sometimes crunches), was diagnosed with a bruise (another doctor – osteoarthritis), advised physical therapy and physical therapy (went for paraffin). The knee sometimes hurts and it’s like popping up and stands in place, but rarely, if there is careless driving (the feeling is not painful, not pleasant). Recently decided to go back to physical therapy. Please comment on the following activities: stationary bike, stretching (or yoga), massage, hand massage – how they can be effective and in what sequence it is better to combine or not to combine? Whatever treatments you could advise at home? Thank you for your answer. View answer
Severe pain always accompanies the sprain. It usually occurs when the movement in the joint and pressure on the damaged area. During the first days after the stretching is increased swelling in the area of the damaged ligament, locally, the temperature increases, bleeding in the soft tissue (hematoma). In case of injury of average strength usually there is a limitation in the knee, and in complete rupture of a ligament, on the contrary, there is excessive mobility and instability of the joint.
The main measures that should be observed in the hamstring ligaments, are United into the so-called complex RICE. This program includes four items: Rest rest, Ice applying ice, Compression bandage and fixing the Elevation raising the injured extremity (elevated position) to reduce swelling.
- Rest. Tensile popliteal ligament is necessary to ensure the greatest possible rest for the injured limb at least two days. It is also possible to non-rigid immobilization of the joint for a few days (use of elastic bandage). When fully torn ligaments require rigid immobilization for a few weeks (gypsum, immobilizing orthosis).
- Ice. In the first two or three days to the affected area you need to ice that. It is used every 3-4 hours. Ice should be using a towel for no longer than 20 minutes.
- Compression. With the help of an elastic bandage pressure bandage is applied. However, the bandage need not too tight that the limb is not numb and has not acquired a pale or bluish color.
- Elevation. The injured limb should be given an exalted position. For example, when lying down you can put the damaged foot on a separate cushion.
In the case of severe pain in the hamstring ligaments and possibly the use of pain medicinal drugs (inside a tablet form, topical ointments, gels).
The treatment, which is carried out in the first days after the injury, aimed at reducing edema and pain relief by using painkillers. In the future, for the strengthening and development of joint, prevent stiffness, prevent re-sprains, are special rehabilitation exercises. In the case of ineffectiveness of conservative therapy in the complete rupture of ligaments, with a view to their restoration it is possible to perform surgical operations.