Gender medicine: women are ill in a different way
Symptoms, Risk Factors, Medikamentenverträurgency: In many areas of medicine, there is a groß is;he difference between a man and a woman. This also has consequences für therapy
Full the waiting room: the doctor women and Mä should;men are not über of scissors a comb
To Erkäswitching time have it Mämen twice as difficult. In addition to nasty viruses you will be from hämix Sprüchen followed. "My husband is multitaskingfähig. He can cough and jammern", lästar women. Or: "A real man lässt write only sick if it is life-threatening. For example, in the case of a cold."
Dr. Kyle Sue, a physician at the Memorial-Universität of Newfoundland (Canada), was tired of stäfully as Jammerlobes out to be. He was looking for einschläthe relevant studies, durchkäfew key hospital statistics and came to the result: The Mämen-Cold there really. In the case of flu müshot Mämen ömore often in the Clinic than women of the same age. In the case of infections of the respiratory tract, they are also anfädigit für complications, reported Sue in the British Medical Journal.
Women have a more active immune system
Even if Sue’s study was ultimately not klären can, whether verschnupfte Mämen, maybe, but this one is particularly expressive of suffering: That they häsingle-stage and severe respiratory infections are diagnosed, für Professor Vera Regitz-Zagrosek üsurprising. "Women have the more active Immunsystem", the Director of the Institute fü says;r gender research in medicine at Berlin’s Universitätsklinikum Charité. The downside: the defense is also häsingle-stage against their own Köbody. "Three-quarters of the patients suffering from autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or Multiple sclerosis, are weiblich", Regitz-Zagrosek reported.
That biology knows no equality, not only on the immune system. "In the case of many important diseases to find significant differences between Mämen and Frauen", Regitz-Zagrosek says. The heart specialist is a pioneer of the gender medicine, a relatively young discipline, combines for the first time, in the view of what’s actually every weiß: Mämen and women are different.
Drug trials: women have often been excluded
In medicine but this has been ignored for a long time. Apart from diseases of the genital organs as well as pregnancy and birth, and was based only on a person-model: the man. The männliche medicine begins with the mouse. Be tested new drugs zunäfirst, in animal subjects: young mämale Mäusen. "Active ingredients, the only show in the case of female animals a good effect, not only in the Entwicklung", Regitz-Zagrosek says.
In the case of drug testing, the für the approval of a new active substance, are mandatory, women were excluded for a long time. As the subjects are unpopular, you made not only the up and down of their hormones, the results verwäwaters can. Jüfor younger women köcan also become pregnant. After the thalidomide scandal, in which a sleep aid to malformations of Thousands of children gefühad hrt was the fear of the risk to groß.
Women suffer ömore often to side effects of drugs
However, even if women ausschließt, you are in danger. A well-known example: Digoxin. Patients with Herzschwäche was supposed to be the altbewärigidity means up to a thousand-year-flä turning;chenopaque prescribed. A long-term observation at the end of the 1990s, this practice seemed to bestätransparent. Then Ä analyzed;doctors your data – separated according to gender. Result: Apparently, the Prä helped;the Council of Europe only Mämen. Women, the income from it, died in the cut even früof heart problems than those without the funds. "A Katastrophe", Regitz-Zagrosek says.
Digoxin is probably the most dramatic example dafür, how different drugs act köcan. The only thing it is not, Far from it. "Women suffer from a General ömore often to Nebenwirkungen", Professor Margarethe says Hochleitner. In the outpatient clinic of the women’s health center at the University of Innsbruck you will täpossible with the consequences. So fülead to treat hypertension in patients häsingle-stage to swollen legs.
High-Leitner describes a typical Leiden history: The patient erhält entwässernde. She gets Kräspasms, take Magnesium. The füleads to stomach problems, while the nämost Drug &ndash is prescribed; with new side effects. "There are more modern means, the women are much better vertragen", so, the Doctor. Only a few Ädoctors have the.
The "kleinen" Differences: Weight, Hormones, And Chromosomes
Causes dafür, that drugs act differently in women, there are many. These are usually smaller and weigh less. "Drugs are therefore often überdosiert", erklärt Genthe-Specialist High-Leitner. "Women and Mämen differ in every Körperzelle", stressed Professor Sabine Oertelt-Prigione, at the Radboud Universität in the holläforeign Nijmegen, the chair für gender medicine. In each cell, sex chromosomes stuck. "Many of the genes für immune function are important, lying on the X-Chromosom", says Oertelt-Prigione.
And also the hormones have an important influence. Wäwhile Öthe defense strogen pusht, testosterone is inhibitory. This shows, for example, in the case of vaccinations. In a study by researchers at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington genügte, in the case of women half a dose to achieve a flu vaccination, the same effect as in the case of Mämen. The protection hält in the female sex in General, läViking.
Rethinking patient care and research
Wäit is not as useful Impfdosierungen, as well as the time period between the refresh operations to be gender-specific? "All diskutiert" is;, says Oertelt-Prigione. Everyday it is längst not. Until new findings have found their way to the patient, it often takes a long – not only in the gender medicine. "However, there is a Umdenken", verensures Oertelt-Prigione. In the case of the approval of a new drug müLunches are now included women in the Tests.
Also in the research öthe view fü open;r differences – with üsurprising results. The canadian pain researcher Jeffrey Mogil headed showed that when working with Mäusen is not only the sex of the animals influenced the result – but also the researchers. The rodents were less schmerzsensitive, if you Mämen have been examined. As the cause Mogil headed was able to identify pheromones. The männliche fragrance continued the Mäuse under Stress and däfought the sensation of pain.
Smoking, belly fat and Stress are für women gefäannual
Meanwhile, almost every few days will appear a new study results that demonstrate the groß the small difference is. Most are still from the heart medicine, the first trade in the direction of geschlechtsspezifipoints of view summed up. Here, there are already successes. So it was left to a heart attack in women früoften undetected. "A großs hospital are the chances of women and Mämen meanwhile, the same gut", Regitz-Zagrosek says.
But also in other diseases such as Diabetes is increasingly being seen that women are ill in a different way than Mämen. So the risk factor is abdominal fat you stäamplifier. Einflüsse, such as smoke, fine dust and Stress damage you more. In the case of cancer mä have, however,;nnavailable patients the worse cards. You do not get the disease only häsingle-stage. "They have the same Tumor, trägt the man the höto sterben" here risk, ;, Leitner says.
The große question is: Why? To answer you, there is still a lot of research nötig – not only for the benefit of women. Thus, some diseases such as Depression or ­ stay;Osteoporosis, especially in Mämen undetected. The Hintergründe a fact düthe stronger sex are likely to be interested in: Still, women live an average füfive years länger as a Mämen.
Gender medicine: What women and Mämen differ
Liver: women tolerate less alcohol than Mämen. The cause is to größa part of the Liver. It is not for women only small; also, some of the enzymes, depending on the Gender differs. A The influence this has on the removal of pharmaceuticals. Because women are often smaller and lighter, are drugs, rather than überdosiert.
Hormones: The sex hormones are essential to involved women and Mämen äußerlich differ. Their effect, however, goes much further. The messengers that affect the immune system, the metabolism and function of organs.
Heart: Stabbing chest pain, in the Arm, emitting a Engegefühl, as würde an elephant on a stand: Almost everyone thinks such complaints to a Herzinfarction. However, this can also be atypical. For women, the ­ comes;clearly hä- stage before. You is often übel, you are erschöpft or have pain in the upper abdomen. The result: häfrequent misdiagnosis. The gender medicine made for the first time.
Intestine: The female intestine usually works a little slower than the Mämen. This not only affects the Aufacceptance of medicines from. Schädavailable substances in the food have more time, the intestinal wall to attack. Mämen, by contrast, hä ill;single-stage and früto End, and colon cancer.
Schilddrüse: women are significantly öfter the Schilddrüse, for example in graves ‘ disease or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
Fat cells: women have more fat tissue and less muscle mass than Mämen. The proportion of water in your Köthe body is lower.
Kidneys: especially äolder women have häoften a Nierenschwäche. Drugs remain läViking Köbody, what to Überdosierungen fülead can.
Bone: Brü- language of bones are not only a woman’s problem. About a third of the Mämen üover 70 years suffers from osteoporosis. However, this often remains undetected.
The immune system: especially in the middle years of life, women have the stäpowerful immune system. The drawback: you suffer ömore often in auto-immune diseases.
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