Novel Diabetic Foot Ulcer Cream Shows Promise in Phase 3 Trial
ON101 (Fespixon, Oneness Biotech), a first-in-class, macrophage-regulating, wound-healing cream for diabetic foot ulcers has shown benefit over absorbent dressings in a phase 3 trial, with another trial ongoing.
The product became available in Taiwan on July 4, 2021, after receiving regulatory approval from the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based on efficacy and safety findings in a three-country phase 3 clinical trial.
Oneness Biotech has also just started a second phase 3 trial in the United States, with a planned enrollment of 208 patients with diabetic foot ulcers, which will compare ON101 cream versus placebo cream, in addition to standard care, over 20 weeks.
The company expects to complete that trial and file a new drug application with the US FDA in 2023, and a global launch is planned for 2025, said Oneness Biotech founder and CEO William Lu.
Current and Upcoming Trials
The Taiwan FDA approval of ON101 was based on a 236-patient clinical trial conducted in Taiwan, China, and the United States by Yu-Yao Huang MD, PhD, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan City, Taiwan, and colleagues, which was published online September 3 in JAMA Network Open.
The study results will also be presented during an oral session at the virtual 57th European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) meeting on September 30.
The published trial showed that foot ulcers treated with ON101 cream were almost three times more likely to be completely healed at 16 weeks than those treated with standard care with an absorbent dressing (Aquacel Hydrofiber, ConvaTec) (odds ratio, 2.84; P < .001).
“The findings of this study suggest that ON101, a macrophage regulator that behaves differently from moisture-retaining dressings, represents an active-healing alternative for home and primary care of patients with chronic [diabetic foot ulcers],” the researchers conclude.
“ON101 was also granted a fast track designation by the US FDA in March this year,” senior author Shun-Chen Chang, MD, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan, told Medscape Medical News in an email.
“Patients in the United States can access this new drug via the expanded access program or by participating in the second phase 3 trial in the United States,” added coauthor Shawn M. Cazzell, DPM, chief medical officer, Limb Preservation Platform, Fresno, California, who is involved with both trials.
It is “exciting” to have a new therapy for diabetic foot ulcers, said Cazzell, because they are serious and life-threatening.
Could Cream With Plant Extracts Surpass Current Care?
Current standard clinical care for diabetic foot ulcer consists of debridement, off-loading, infection control, and maintaining a moist environment with dressings, Huang and colleagues explain. If the foot ulcer does not respond, growth factors, tissue-engineering products, hyperbaric oxygen, or negative pressure wound therapies may be used.
However, the number of amputations from chronic diabetic foot ulcers that do not heal is increasing, pointing to a need for better treatment options.
Hyperglycemia increases the ratio of M1 proinflammatory macrophages to M2 proregenerative macrophages, and accumulating evidence suggests this might be a potential treatment target.
Researchers at Oneness Biotech showed that ON101, which is comprised of extracts from two plants, Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica, exerts a wound-healing effect by regulating the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages.
An extract of one plant suppresses inflammation, while an extract of the other increases collagen synthesis.
In preclinical studies, these two plant extracts had a synergistic effect on balancing the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages and accelerating wound healing in a mouse model. This was followed by promising efficacy and safety results in two trials of 24 patients and 30 patients.
Significantly Better Healing With ON101 Than Standard Care
For the current phase 3 randomized clinical trial, researchers enrolled patients in 21 clinics from November 2012 to May 2020.
To be eligible for the study, patients had to be 20-80 years old, with an A1c < 12%. They also had to have a Wagner grade 1 or 2 foot ulcer that was 1-25 cm2 after debridement, had been treated with standard care, and was present for at least 4 weeks.
Patients were a mean age of 57 years and 74% were men. They had a mean A1c of 8.1%, and 61% had had diabetes for more than 10 years.
Most (78%) of the diabetic foot ulcers were Wagner grade 2. The wounds had a mean area of 4.8 cm2 and had been present for a mean of 7 months.
Patients were instructed on how to self-administer ON101 cream twice a day (treatment group, n = 122) or how to apply an absorbent dressing and change it daily or 2 to 3 times a week (standard care group, n = 114). All patients were allowed to apply a sterile gauze dressing.
They visited the clinic every 2 weeks during the 16-week treatment phase and 12-week observation phase.
In the full analysis set, 74 patients (61%) in the ON101 group and 40 patients (35%) in the standard care group had complete wound healing after 16 weeks of treatment.
The subgroup of patients at higher risk of poor wound healing (A1c > 9%, ulcer area > 5 cm2, and diabetic foot ulcer duration > 6 months) also had significantly better healing with the ON101 cream than standard care.
There were seven (5.7%) treatment-emergent adverse events in the ON101 group versus five (4.4%) in the standard care group.
There were no treatment-related serious adverse events in the ON101 group versus one (0.9%) in the comparator group.
The study was funded by Oneness Biotech, Microbio Group, and Shanghai Haihe Pharmaceutical Co. One author (C.W. Lin) has reported receiving fees from Oneness Biotech, and Chang has reported receiving a speakers fee from Oneness Biotech. The other authors have reported no relevant financial relationships.
JAMA Netw Open. Published online September 3, 2021. Full text
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